A brief history of Namibia

Namibia, previously known as South-West Africa, was declared a German protectorate by Otto von Bismarck in 1884. During World War I, South African forces conquered German South-West Africa, leading to its administration by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate in 1920. The South-West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) was established on 19 April 1960 as a liberation movement.

In 1966, the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), SWAPO’s military wing, fought a guerrilla war which ultimately resulted in the South African forces giving up their illegal occupation of Namibia in 1988, in compliance with a United Nations peace plan for the entire region. SWAPO came to power in 1989 after the implementation of United Nations Resolution 435, which called for free and fair elections under the supervision of the United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG), ending 106 years of colonialism and a long struggle for national liberation.

Namibia gained its hard-won independence on 21 March 1990, with Dr Sam Nujoma becoming the Founding President of an independent and sovereign state, the Republic of Namibia. President Nujoma stepped down in 2005 after serving three terms. A smooth democratic transition of power followed when Hifikepunye Pohamba was elected President in November 2004. In November 2014, Dr. Hage G. Geingob was elected President while serving as prime minister. Dr.Hage Geingob was inaugurated as President of Namibia on 21 March 2015.